# Sorting and Removing Duplicates

## Overview

Teaching: 10 min
Exercises: 10 min
Questions
• How can I sort a query’s results?

• How can I remove duplicate values from a query’s results?

Objectives
• Write queries that display results in a particular order.

• Write queries that eliminate duplicate values from data.

In beginning our examination of the Antarctic data, we want to know:

• what kind of quantity measurements were taken at each site;
• which scientists took measurements on the expedition;
• the sites where each scientist took measurements

To determine which measurements were taken at each site, we can examine the `Survey` table. Data is often redundant, so queries often return redundant information. For example, if we select the quantities that have been measured from the `Survey` table, we get this:

``````SELECT quant FROM Survey;
``````
quant
sal
sal
sal
temp
sal
temp
temp
sal
sal
temp
sal
sal
sal

This result makes it difficult to see all of the different types of `quant` in the Survey table. We can eliminate the redundant output to make the result more readable by adding the `DISTINCT` keyword to our query:

``````SELECT DISTINCT quant FROM Survey;
``````
quant
sal
temp

If we want to determine which visit (stored in the `taken` column) have which `quant` measurement, we can use the `DISTINCT` keyword on multiple columns. If we select more than one column, distinct sets of values are returned (in this case pairs, because we are selecting two columns):

``````SELECT DISTINCT taken, quant FROM Survey;
``````
taken quant
619 sal
622 sal
734 sal
734 temp
735 sal
735 temp
751 temp
751 sal
752 sal
752 temp
837 sal

Notice in both cases that duplicates are removed even if the rows they come from didn’t appear to be adjacent in the database table.

Our next task is to identify the scientists on the expedition by looking at the `Person` table. As we mentioned earlier, database records are not stored in any particular order. This means that query results aren’t necessarily sorted, and even if they are, we often want to sort them in a different way, e.g., by their identifier instead of by their personal name. We can do this in SQL by adding an `ORDER BY` clause to our query:

``````SELECT * FROM Person ORDER BY id;
``````
id personal family
danfort Frank Danforth
dyer William Dyer
lake Anderson Lake
pb Frank Pabodie
roe Valentina Roerich

By default, when we use ORDER BY results are sorted in ascending order of the column we specify (i.e., from least to greatest).

We can sort in the opposite order using `DESC` (for “descending”):

## A note on ordering

While it may look that the records are consistent every time we ask for them in this lesson, that is because no one has changed or modified any of the data so far. Remember to use ORDER BY if you want the rows returned to have any sort of consistent or predictable order.

``````SELECT * FROM person ORDER BY id DESC;
``````
id personal family
roe Valentina Roerich
pb Frank Pabodie
lake Anderson Lake
dyer William Dyer
danfort Frank Danforth

(And if we want to make it clear that we’re sorting in ascending order, we can use `ASC` instead of `DESC`.)

In order to look at which scientist measured quantities during each visit, we can look again at the `Survey` table. We can also sort on several fields at once. For example, this query sorts results first in ascending order by `taken`, and then in descending order by `person` within each group of equal `taken` values:

``````SELECT taken, person, quant FROM Survey ORDER BY taken ASC, person DESC;
``````
taken person quant
619 dyer sal
622 dyer sal
734 pb temp
734 lake sal
735 -null- sal
735 -null- temp
751 pb temp
751 lake sal
752 roe sal
752 lake sal
752 lake temp
837 roe sal
837 lake sal

This query gives us a good idea of which scientist was involved in which visit, and what measurements they performed during the visit.

Looking at the table, it seems like some scientists specialized in certain kinds of measurements. We can examine which scientists performed which measurements by selecting the appropriate columns and removing duplicates.

``````SELECT DISTINCT quant, person FROM Survey ORDER BY quant ASC;
``````
quant person
sal dyer
sal lake
sal -null-
sal roe
temp pb
temp -null-
temp lake

## Finding Distinct Dates

Write a query that selects distinct dates from the `Visited` table.

## Solution

``````SELECT DISTINCT dated FROM Visited;
``````
dated
1927-02-08
1927-02-10
1930-01-07
1930-01-12
1930-02-26

1932-01-14
1932-03-22

## Displaying Full Names

Write a query that displays the full names of the scientists in the `Person` table, ordered by family name.

## Solution

``````SELECT personal, family FROM Person ORDER BY family ASC;
``````
personal family
Frank Danforth
William Dyer
Anderson Lake
Frank Pabodie
Valentina Roerich

## Key Points

• The records in a database table are not intrinsically ordered: if we want to display them in some order, we must specify that explicitly with ORDER BY.

• The values in a database are not guaranteed to be unique: if we want to eliminate duplicates, we must specify that explicitly as well using DISTINCT.