Repeating With Loops
OverviewTeaching: 40 min
Exercises: 10 minQuestions
How can I repeat the same operations on multiple values?Objectives
Explain what a for loop does.
Correctly write for loops that repeat simple commands.
Trace changes to a loop variable as the loops runs.
Use a for loop to process multiple files
Recall that we have to do this analysis for every one of our dozen datasets, and we need a better way than typing out commands for each one, because we’ll find ourselves writing a lot of duplicate code. Remember, code that is repeated in two or more places will eventually be wrong in at least one. Also, if we make changes in the way we analyze our datasets, we have to introduce that change in every copy of our code. To avoid all of this repetition, we have to teach MATLAB to repeat our commands, and to do that, we have to learn how to write loops.
Suppose we want to print each character in the word “lead” on
a line of its own. One way is to use four
%LOOP_DEMO Demo script to explain loops word = 'lead'; disp(word(1)) disp(word(2)) disp(word(3)) disp(word(4))
l e a d
But this is a bad approach for two reasons:
It doesn’t scale: if we want to print the characters in a string that’s hundreds of letters long, we’d be better off typing them in.
It’s fragile: if we change
wordto a longer string, it only prints part of the data, and if we change it to a shorter one, it produces an error, because we’re asking for characters that don’t exist.
%LOOP_DEMO Demo script to explain loops word = 'tin'; disp(word(1)) disp(word(2)) disp(word(3)) disp(word(4))
error: A(I): index out of bounds; value 4 out of bound 3
There’s a better approach:
%LOOP_DEMO Demo script to explain loops word = 'lead'; for letter = 1:4 disp(word(letter)) end
l e a d
This improved version uses a for loop to repeat an operation—in this case, printing to the screen—once for each element in an array.
The general form of a for loop is:
for variable = collection do things with variable end
The for loop executes the commands in the
for every value in the array
This value is called the loop variable,
and we can call it whatever we like.
In our example, we gave it the name
We have to terminate the loop body with the
and we can have as many commands as we like in the loop body.
But, we have to remember
that they will all be repeated as many times as
there are values in
Our for loop has made our code more scalable, and less fragile. There’s still one little thing about it that should bother us. For our loop to deal appropriately with shorter or longer words, we have to change the first line of our loop by hand:
%LOOP_DEMO Demo script to explain loops word = 'tin'; for letter = 1:3 disp(word(letter)) end
t i n
Although this works, it’s not the best way to write our loop:
We might update
wordand forget to modify the loop to reflect that change.
We might make a mistake while counting the number of letters in
Fortunately, MATLAB provides us with a convenient function to write a better loop:
%LOOP_DEMO Demo script to explain loops word = 'aluminum'; for letter = 1:length(word) disp(word(letter)) end
a l u m i n u m
This is much more robust code, as it can deal identically with words of arbitrary length. Loops are not only for working with strings, they allow us to do repetitive calculations regardless of data type. Here’s another loop that calculates the sum of all even numbers between 1 and 10:
%LOOP_DEMO Demo script to explain loops total = 0; for even_number = 2 : 2 : 10 total = total + even_number; end disp('The sum of all even numbers between 1 and 10 is:') disp(total)
It’s worth tracing the execution of this little program step by step.
We can use the MATLAB debugger to trace the execution of a program.
The first step is to set a break point by clicking just to the right of a line number on the
-symbol. A red circle will appear — this is the break point, and when we run the script, MATLAB will pause execution at that line.
A green arrow appears, pointing to the next line to be run. To continue running the program one line at a time, we use the
We can then inspect variables in the workspace or by hovering the cursor over where they appear in the code, or get MATLAB to evaluate expressions in the command window (notice the prompt changes to
This process is useful to check your understanding of a program, in order to correct mistakes.
This process is illustrated below:
Since we want to sum only even numbers,
the loop index
even_number starts at 2
and increases by 2 with every iteration.
When we enter the loop,
total is zero -
the value assigned to it beforehand.
The first time through, the loop body adds
the value of the first even number (2) to the
old value of
total (0), and updates
total to refer to that new value.
On the next loop iteration,
even_number is 4
and the initial value of
total is 2,
so the new value assigned to
total is 6.
even_number reaches the final value (10),
total is 30;
since this is the end of the range for
the loop finishes and the
disp statements give us the
Note that a loop variable is just a variable that’s being used to record progress in a loop. It still exists after the loop is over, and we can re-use variables previously defined as loop variables as well:
MATLAB uses the caret (
^) to perform exponentiation:
You can also use a loop to perform exponentiation. Remember that
Let a variable
bbe the base of the number and
xthe exponent. Write a loop to compute
b^x. Check your result for
b = 4and
x = 5.
% Loop to perform exponentiation b = 4; % base x = 5; % exponent result=1; for i = 1:x result = result * b; end disp([num2str(b), '^', num2str(x), ' = ', num2str(result)])
Incrementing with Loops
Write a loop that spells the word “aluminum,” adding one letter at a time:
a al alu alum alumi alumin aluminu aluminum
% spell a string adding one letter at a time using a loop word = 'aluminium'; for letter = 1:length(word) disp(word(1:letter)) end
Looping in Reverse
In MATLAB, the colon operator (
:) accepts a stride or skip argument between the start and stop:
1 4 7 10
11 8 5 2
Using this, write a loop to print the letters of “aluminum” in reverse order, one letter per line.
m u n i m u l a
% Spell a string in reverse using a loop word = 'aluminium'; for letter = length(word):-1:1 disp(word(letter)) end
Analyzing patient data from multiple files
We now have almost everything we need to process
multiple data files using a loop and the plotting code in our
We still need to generate a list of data files to process, and then we can use a loop to repeat the analysis for each file.
We can use the
dir command to return a structure array containing
the names of the files in the
Each element in this structure array is a structure, containing
information about a single file in the form of named fields.
>> files = dir('data/inflammation-*.csv')
files = 12×1 struct array with fields: name folder date bytes isdir datenum
To access the name field of the first file, we can use the following syntax:
>> filename = files(1).name; >> disp(filename)
To get the modification date of the third file, we can do:
>> mod_date = files(3).date; >> disp(mod_date)
A good first step towards processing multiple files is to write a loop which prints
the name of each of our files.
Let’s write this in a script
plot_all.m which we will then develop further:
%PLOT_ALL Developing code to automate inflammation analysis files = dir('data/inflammation-*.csv'); for i = 1:length(files) file_name = files(i).name; disp(file_name) end
inflammation-01.csv inflammation-02.csv inflammation-03.csv inflammation-04.csv inflammation-05.csv inflammation-06.csv inflammation-07.csv inflammation-08.csv inflammation-09.csv inflammation-10.csv inflammation-11.csv inflammation-12.csv
Another task is to generate the file names for the figures we’re going to save.
Let’s name the output file after the data file used to generate the figure.
So for the data set
inflammation-01.csv we will call the figure
We can use the
replace command for this purpose.
The syntax for the
replace command is like this:
NEWSTR = replace(STR, OLD, NEW)
So for example if we have the string
big_shark and want to get the string
terror_shark, we can execute the following command:
>> new_string = replace('big_shark', 'big', 'terror'); >> disp(new_string)
In Octave, the
replacefunction doesn’t exist, but the
strrepfunction is a direct replacement. The above example becomes
>> new_string = strep('big_shark', 'big', 'terror') terror_shark
Recall that we’re saving our figures to the
The best way to generate a path to a file in MATLAB is by using the
This generates a file path with the correct separators for the platform you’re using
(i.e. forward slash for Linux and macOS, and backslash for Windows).
This makes your code more portable which is great for collaboration.
Putting these concepts together, we can now generate the paths for the data files, and the image files we want to save:
%PLOT_ALL Developing code to automate inflammation analysis files = dir('data/inflammation-*.csv'); for i = 1:length(files) file_name = files(i).name; % Generate string for image name img_name = replace(file_name, '.csv', '.png'); % Generate path to data file and image file file_name = fullfile('data', file_name); img_name = fullfile('results',img_name); disp(file_name) disp(img_name) end
data/inflammation-01.csv results/inflammation-01.png data/inflammation-02.csv results/inflammation-02.png data/inflammation-03.csv results/inflammation-03.png data/inflammation-04.csv results/inflammation-04.png data/inflammation-05.csv results/inflammation-05.png data/inflammation-06.csv results/inflammation-06.png data/inflammation-07.csv results/inflammation-07.png data/inflammation-08.csv results/inflammation-08.png data/inflammation-09.csv results/inflammation-09.png data/inflammation-10.csv results/inflammation-10.png data/inflammation-11.csv results/inflammation-11.png data/inflammation-12.csv results/inflammation-12.png
We’re now ready to modify
plot_all.m to actually process multiple data files:
%PLOT_ALL Print statistics for all patients. % Save plots of statistics to disk. files = dir('data/inflammation-*.csv'); % Process each file in turn for i = 1:length(files) file_name = files(i).name; % Generate strings for image names: img_name = replace(file_name, '.csv', '.png'); % Generate path to data file and image file file_name = fullfile('data', file_name); img_name = fullfile('results', img_name); patient_data = readmatrix(file_name); % Create figures figure('visible', 'off') subplot(2, 2, 1) plot(mean(patient_data, 1)) title('Average') ylabel('Inflammation') xlabel('Day') subplot(2, 2, 2) plot(max(patient_data, , 1)) title('Max') ylabel('Inflammation') xlabel('Day') subplot(2, 2, 3) plot(min(patient_data, , 1)) title('Min') ylabel('Inflammation') xlabel('Day') print(img_name, '-dpng') close() end
We run the modified script using its name in the Command Window:
The first three figures output to the
results directory are as shown below:
Sure enough, the maxima of these data sets show exactly the same ramp as the first, and their minima show the same staircase structure.
We’ve now automated the analysis and have confirmed that all the data files we have looked at show the same artifact. This is what we set out to test, and now we can just call one script to do it. With minor modifications, this script could be re-used to check all our future data files.
forto create a loop that repeats one or more operations.